➔ LITTÉRATURE

Mouvement littéraire négritude

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Negritude is a literary and political, created after World War II, bringing together French-speaking black writers, including Aime Cesaire, Leopold Sedar Senghor, Léon Damas Gontran, Guy Tirolien, Birago Diop and René Depestre particular. Linked to anti-colonialism, the movement influenced by the following number of people close to the Black nationalism, extending well beyond the Francophone world.

Origin

The term was coined in 1935 by Aime Cesaire in issue 3 of the student magazine The Student Martinique black. He claims the black identity and culture, first against a perceived oppressive Frenchness and instrument of the French colonial administration (Discourse on Colonialism, Notebook of a Return to My Native Land). Cesaire will use it again in 1939 when the first publication of the Notebook of a Return to My Native Land. The concept is then taken by Leopold Sedar Senghor in his Chants d’ombre, which deepens, opposing ‘the reason Hellenic’ to ‘Black emotions’:

‘Night deliver me reasons fairs sophistry, pirouettes excuses, hatred of bloodshed humanisésNuit calculated that melts all my contradictions, all contradictions in the first unit of your blackness ‘

Meaning

The birth of this concept, and that of a journal, Presence Africaine, published simultaneously in 1947 in Dakar and Paris, will be the effect of a blast. It brings together blacks from all walks of the world, and French intellectuals, including Sartre. It then defines negritude as ‘the negation of the negation of the black man.’

According to Senghor, negritude is ‘all the cultural values ​​of Black Africa.’ According to Senghor, ‘Negritude is a fact, a culture. This is all the economic, political, intellectual, moral, artistic and social African peoples and minorities of black America, Asia and Oceania. ‘For Césaire,’ the word means first rejection. The rejection of cultural assimilation;the rejection of a certain image of the Black peaceful, unable to build a civilization. The cultural premium on the policy. ‘


Origin

The term was coined in 1935 by Aime Cesaire in issue 3 of the student magazine The Student Martinique black. He claims the black identity and culture, first against a perceived oppressive Frenchness and instrument of the French colonial administration (Discourse on Colonialism, Notebook of a Return to My Native Land). Cesaire will use it again in 1939 when the first publication of the Notebook of a Return to My Native Land. The concept is then taken by Leopold Sedar Senghor in his Chants d’ombre, which deepens, opposing ‘the reason Hellenic’ to ‘Black emotions’:

‘Night of the reasons that I deliver fairs sophistry, pirouettes excuses, hatred of bloodshed humanisésNuit calculated that melts all my contradictions, all contradictions in the first unit of your blackness’

Reviews

Subsequently, black or Creole writers have criticized this concept as being too reductive: ‘The tiger does not proclaim its tigritude. He leaps on its prey and devours ‘(Wole Soyinka). Stanislas Spero Adotevi analysis is severe in his essay and négrologues Negritude ‘Remembrance in the conniving night, the blackness is the offering of the lyric poet in his own darkness desperately to the past.

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